Denotation : The basic definition or dictionary meaning of a word .
Connotation : What a word suggests beyond its basic dictionary definition , a word's overtones of meaning .
Imagery : The representation through language of sense experience .
The word image perhaps most often suggests a mental picture, something seen in the mind's eye – and visual imagery is the kind of imagery that occurs most frequently in poetry.But an image may also represent a sound ( auditory imagery ), a smell ( olfactory imagery ), a taste ( gustatory imagery ), touch, such as hardness, softness, wetness, or heat and cold ( tactile imagery ), an internal sensation, such as hunger, thirst, fatigue, or nausea ( organic imagery ), or movement or tension in the muscles or joints ( kinesthetic imagery ).
Figurative Language :
Simile : A figure of speech in which an explicit comparison is made between two things essentially un like. The comparison is made explicit by the use of some such word or phrase as like, as, than, similar, resembles, or seems.
metaphor : A figure of speech in which an implicit comparison is made between two things essentially unlike. It may take one of four forms:
(1) that in which the literal term and figurative term are both named.
(2) that in which the literal term is named and the figurative term implied.
(3) that in which the literal term is implied and the figurative term named.
(4) that in which both the literal and the figurative terms are implied.
Personification : A figure of speech in which human attributes are given to an animal, an object, or a concept .
Apostrophe : A figure of speech in which someone absent or dead or something nonhuman is addressed as if it were alive and present and could reply .
Metonymy : A figure of speech in which some significant aspect or detail of an experience is used to represent the whole experience. The single term metonymy is used for what sometimes distinguished as two separate figures: synecdoche ( the use of the part for the whole ) and metonymy ( the use of something closely related for the thing actually meant ).
Symbol : A figure of speech in which something ( object, person, situation, or action ) means more that what it is. A symbol, in other words, may be read both literally and
Paradox : A statement or situation containing apparently contradictory or incompatible elements.
Overstatement : A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used in the service of truth.
Understatement : A figure of speech that consists of saying less than one means, or of saying what one means with less force than the occasion warrants.
A situation, or a use of language, involving some kind of incongruity or distinguished.
We have three kinds of irony :
- Verbal Irony
- Dramatic Irony
- Situational Irony
A reference, explicit or implicit, to something in literature or history.
The writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject, the audience, or herself or himself, the emotional coloring, or emotional meaning, of a work .
Musical Devices :
Alliteration : It is when the sounds of consonants in a phrase, are similar and occur closely together.
Assonance : The repetition at close intervals of the vowel sounds of accented syllables or important words .
Consonance : The repetition at close intervals of the final consonant sounds of accented syllables or important words .
The repetition of the accented vowel sound and all succeeding sounds in important or importantly positioned words.